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The Nature of the Qur'aan: Created or Uncreated?

Allah is the Creator; He wasn't created. Allah's book, the Qur'aan, is an attribute of Allah, thus it is not a created thing. Those who have claimed the Qur'aan to be a created thing have been thoroughly rebuked in the books of 'Aqeedah.

Recently for the second time I came across a beautiful explanation of the nature of the Qur'aan by Imaam Abu Haneefah (radhia Allaahu 'anhu). In it he says:*

وصفاته في الأزل غير محدثة ولا مخلوقة ومن قال إنها مخلوقة أو محدثة او وقف او شك فيهما فهو كافر بالله تعالى
"And His attributes have always been (existent), not new, and not created. And whoever says that they are created or they are new, or (he) stops to (re)think about them or doubts them, then he is a disbeliever in Allaah, the Most High."


والقرآن كلام الله تعالى في المصاحف مكتوب وفي القلوب محفوظ وعلى الألسن مقروء وعلى النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام منزل ولفظنا بالقرآن مخلوق وكتابتنا له مخلوقة وقراءتنا له مخلوقة والقرآن غير مخلوق
"And the Qur'aan is the Word of Allaah, the Most High, written in books, memorized in hearts, recited on tongues, and revealed to the Prophet (salla Allaahu 'alayhy wa sallam). Our recitation of the Qur'aan is created, our writing of it is created, and our reading of it is created, but the Qur'aan (itself) is not created."


وما ذكره الله تعالى في القرآن حكاية عن موسى وغيره من الأنبياء عليهم السلام وعن فرعون وابليس فإن ذلك كله كلام الله تعالى إخبارا عنهم وكلام الله تعالى غير مخلوق وكلام موسى وغيره من المخلوقين
"And what Allaah, the Most High, mentioned in the Qur'aan relating from Moses and others among the messengers (peace be upon them), from Pharaoh, and from Iblees then all that is the Word of Allaah telling (us) about them and the Word of Allaah is not created while the words of Moses and the others are created."


والقرآن كلام الله تعالى لا كلامهم وسمع موسى عليه السلام كلام الله تعالى كما في قوله تعالى (وكلم الله موسى تكليما)ا
"So the Qur'aan is the Word of Allaah, the Most High, not their words. And Moses (peace be upon him) heard the Word of Allaah, the Most High, as Allaah mentioned in the Qur'aan (And indeed Allaah spoke to Moses.)"


وقد كان الله تعالى متكلما ولم يكن كلم موسى عليه السلام وقد كان الله تعالى خالقا في الأزل ولم يخلق الخلق فلما كلم الله موسى كلمه بكلامه الذي هو له صفة في الأزل وصفاته كلها بخلاف صفات المخلوقين
"And Allaah had the attribute of speaking before He spoke to Moses (peace be upon him) and He was the Creator before He created the creation. So when He spoke to Moses, He spoke to him with the attribute of speaking that He had always had and His attributes are not like those of His creation."


يعلم لا كعلمنا ويقدر لا كقدرتنا ويرى لا كرؤيتنا ويتكلم لا ككلامنا ويسمع لا كسمعنا ونحن نتكلم بالآلات والحروف و الله تعالى يتكلم بلا آلة ولا حروف والحروف مخلوقة وكلام الله تعالى غير مخلوق
"He knows not like our knowledge, He has power not like our power, He sees not like our sight, He speaks not like our speaking, and He hears not like our hearing. We speak by (speech) apparatus and letters while Allaah speaks not by apparatus and not by letters. The letters are created while the Speech of Allaah is not created."

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* Al-Fiqh al-Akbar, the chapter of Al-Qawl fil Qur'aan (regarding the Qur'aan), and partially quoted in Sharh al-'Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah

Picture by Zaid Al Balushi (license)